Lactobacillales are an order of gram-positive , low-GC , acid-tolerant, generally nonsporulating, nonrespiring , either rod-shaped bacilli or spherical cocci bacteria that share common metabolic and physiological characteristics. These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and milk products, produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation , giving them the common name lactic acid bacteria LAB. Production of lactic acid has linked LAB with food fermentations , as acidification inhibits the growth of spoilage agents. Proteinaceous bacteriocins are produced by several LAB strains and provide an additional hurdle for spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, lactic acid and other metabolic products contribute to the organoleptic and textural profile of a food item. The industrial importance of the LAB is further evidenced by their generally recognized as safe GRAS status, due to their ubiquitous appearance in food and their contribution to the healthy microbiota of animal and human mucosal surfaces.
Lactic Acid Bacteria
Lactic Acid Bacteria | FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Oxford Academic
Researchers at the National Food Institute have come up with a solution that can help combat both food loss and food waste: They have generated a natural lactic acid bacterium, which secretes the antimicrobial peptide nisin, when grown on dairy waste. Nisin is a food-grade preservative, which can extend the shelf life of foods, and thus can be used to reduce food waste. The discovery also makes it possible to better utilize the large quantities of whey generated when cheese is made. Nisin is approved for use in a number of foods, where it can prevent the growth of certain spoilage microorganisms as well as microorganisms that make consumers sick. It can for instance inhibit spore germination in canned soups and prevent late blowing in cheeses -- without affecting its flavour. In theory, nisin could be added to fresh milk to extend its shelf life. However, different countries have different rules stating what types of products nisin may be added to and in which amounts.
The lactic acid bacteria: a literature survey
The purpose of this review article on the lactic acid bacteria grew from an early curiosity and a desire to convey and impart the broad scope of literary information on their functions as starter cultures, in the manufacture of fermentation products such as dairy products and alcoholic beverages, as well as their contribution to better health. This review article is an attempt to empower the reader and to circumvent the difficult task in acquiring and elucidating a large body of information. The intent is to familiarize the reader with the various lactic species, their habitat or source, associated food, physiological characteristics, colonial morphology, biochemical characteristics, culture media enrichment, nonselective, and selective , classic description, and taxonomy. This review provides information on Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Carnobacterium, and Enterococcus. Trends are presented, such as the use of nisin to extend food shelf-life and the current research premise that Probiotic strains may alter the intestinal flora and thus prevent intestinal wall penetration by pathogens.
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