Baker v. Carr, which ordered that state legislative districts should be as close as possible in terms of population. Gideon v. Wainwright, in which it was decided that the defendant in a felony trial must be given a lawyer free of charge if he of she could not afford one on his or her own.
Landmark United States Supreme Court Cases
Landmark Supreme Court Cases | Cases - Mapp v. Ohio
Petitioner city operates vehicle checkpoints on its roads in an effort to interdict unlawful drugs. Respondents, who were each stopped at such a checkpoint, filed suit, claiming that the roadblocks violated the Fourth Amendment. The District Court denied respondents a preliminary injunction, but the Seventh Circuit reversed, holding that the checkpoints contravened the Fourth Amendment. Held: Because the checkpoint program's primary purpose is indistinguishable from the general interest in crime control, the checkpoints violate the Fourth Amendment. For example, this Court has upheld brief, suspicionless seizures at a fixed checkpoint designed to intercept illegal aliens, United States v.
AP US Government : Court Cases
Rodriguez v. United States , U. Criminal detentions generally require probable cause that the suspect is engaged in criminal activity, but an officer may conduct a traffic stop if the officer has a reasonable, articulable suspicion that the driver is engaging in criminal activity. When an officer conducts a traffic stop based on reasonable suspicion that the driver has committed a traffic violation, the Fourth Amendment permits the officer to conduct a number of investigative inquiries before resolving the traffic stop. On the evening of March 27, , Dennys Rodriguez was stopped by a police officer on a highway near Waterloo, Nebraska , after the officer observed him swerve out of his lane of traffic.
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